study2

At least once a week, a friend will announce that they’re taking a “social media detox.” They’ll deactivate an account (or at least delete an app) to avoid the negative feelings that too much social content can foster. I have never taken time off of social, but after falling into one too many late-night Instagram vortexes or stressing about a lack of likes, I can certainly understand the appeal. And according to a new study by Campaign, my generation isn’t the only one feeling the need to cleanse its social palette.

The study states that sixty-four percent of Generation Z is taking a break from at least one social media platform, while thirty-four percent is leaving permanently. This is contradictory to the image of Gen Z’ers as social media natives who grew up with the platforms and for whom social media is a strong sense of identity.

So why are today’s teens opting out of social networking? Largely because of the effect social media has on their mental health. Thirty-five percent of anti-social media users cited that there was too much negativity floating around, while seventeen percent said it made them feel bad about themselves. Social media is often linked to anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem, and eighteen percent said they felt too much pressure from sites to get attention.

Important for marketers to note is that twenty-six percent of respondents were bored by the content they were seeing. Generation Z is largely responsive to branded social content: Sixty-five percent of those who plan to remain on social sites do follow brand accounts, and forty-three percent reported making a purchase directly via social media. As the social media landscape changes with new updates and content formats, brands will be called upon to stretch their creativity to hold Gen Z’s attention.

Because even digital natives are choosing to step away from social media platforms, brands now have a business imperative, or even a social responsibility, to create content that promotes positive feelings in their audience, instead of negative, self-critical ideas. We should expect to see more social content that lifts our audiences up and gives them reason to keep scrolling through the site.

Gen Z is quitting social media in droves because it makes them unhappy, study finds

https://contently.com/strategist/2018/07/16/generation-z-disillusioned-with-social-media/

Starbucks numbers

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Otelpuan nedir? Biz kimiz?Türk turizminde 25 yılı aşkın tecrübesiyle hizmet veren Etsgroup, birikimlerini misafirlerine aktarmak, onları doğru bir şekilde bilgilendirmek ve tatile gidecek kişilere yol göstermek amacıyla 14 Şubat 2008 tarihinde Otelpuan.com’u hayata geçirmiştir.

Türk turizm sektörünün lider firması Etsgroup’un bünyesinde yer alan Otelpuan.com, oteller hakkında daha önce bu otellerde konaklamış kişilerce yapılan değerlendirmeleri, puanlamaları ve fotoğrafları içeren objektif bir paylaşım ve bilgilendirme platformudur.

Tarafsızlık İlkesiSite; yorumların ve içeriklerin tarafsız yayınlanmasıyla tatilcilerin beklentilerine uygun tatilleri seçmesini ve tesislerin tüketici gözüyle kendileri değerlendirmelerini sağlamaktadır. “İyiyi de, kötüyü de yazdım; tercihi size bıraktım” sloganını benimseyen site, sadece şikâyetleri değil, seyahat edenlerin objektif yönlendirmelerini de paylaşmayı, doğru seçimleri ve başarılı işletmeleri de tanıtmayı hedeflemektedir.
Yüz Binleri Aşan Objektif Misafir GörüşüOtelpuan.com, Etstur ile tatile giden misafirlerle telefonla yapılan müşteri memnuniyeti anketlerine de objektif olarak vermektedir. Otelpuan.com’da, web sitesinden görüş ileten tatilcilerin haricinde, ses kayıtları bulunan yüz binden fazla tatilcinin tele anket görüşleri de yer almaktadır. Bu nedenle Otelpuan, herkesin yorumlarına açık ve her geçen gün yeni tatil tecrübeleriyle zenginleşen tarafsız bir sitedir.
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Storyhouse. Photo credit: Peter Cook

[Editor’s note: Simon Erridge, Director at Bennetts Associates Architects, writes about his work on Storyhouse, the building which was officially opened by the Queen and the Duchess of Sussex in June 2018, and featured in RIBA’s list of the best buildings of 2018]

Storyhouse is Chester’s cultural hub, a theatre, cinema and café/bar which hosts professional and community activities, but it is also the main city library, with books spread throughout its spaces. The venue is housed in a converted art-deco cinema, it is open 7 days/week until 11pm, the longest opening hours of any library in the UK.

We designed Storyhouse for client Cheshire West and Chester Council, and the plan to include a library in the brief started as an opportunistic piece of cross-funding. However the advantage was soon seized to free the library from its conventional civic building and to surround it with the creativity and buzz of an arts centre.

Storyhouse the organisation (previously Chester Performs) is both a theatre producer and combined arts organisation and we worked closely with them, along with the city’s library service, to realise the vision. They drew on their experience as a site-specific producer to challenge the accepted norms on how conventional arts centres, and libraries, should operate.

They were quickly able to see the opportunities offered by the partnership, and we were all energised by meeting Dutch library guru Erik Boekesteijn who came with strategic input to the kinds of character spaces that could be created in the building.

Together we designed an innovative solution which would see the library become totally integrated into the building’s operation and planning, and more than that, it would become the most vital ingredient in the cultural mix, bringing people in throughout the day and creating an atmosphere as rich with socialising and study, as it is with storytelling. From the start there were to be no internal doors, no way to ‘close’ the library, and the performance activity in the building – with theatre and cinema finishing late – guaranteed long hours of operation. Its omni-presence meant that the word ‘Library’ never actually had to appear on the signage.

https://www.storyhouse.com/

https://www.storyhouse.com/venue/storyhouse/library

https://librariestaskforce.blog.gov.uk/2018/07/06/storyhouse-how-an-innovative-library-has-energized-the-life-of-a-cultural-hub/

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC09DZi3vAALW77aI2jNeb_w/videos

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 19, 2018

#SocialMedia and #CustomerService (#infographic)

Social-media-and-customer-service

Social media is a vital communication platform and key customer service tool for businesses and organizations. Social media provides businesses the opportunities to offer instant customer service and can also help build brand validity, awareness, and exposure to core, niche or mass audiences. Similarly, it can improve customer relations and extend your brands reach across the Web. To learn more, checkout the infographic below created by the University of Southern California’s Online Master of Science in Applied Psychologyprogram.

Social Media Offers Faster Communications

From Facebook to Twitter, the social media platforms offer businesses faster modes of customer communications. In fact, customers are only willing to wait on phones for minimum times only. Around 77% of consumers believe the best form of customer service a company can offer is valuing their time. With this in mind, companies should switch over from traditional customer service portals to social media platforms. This helps them answer any questions, while resolving customer disputes or concerns in a timely and professional manner.

Social Media for Business — Stats and Figures

According to Forbes Magazine, social media creates more substantial personal relationships with your customers. It also helps increase any brand’s visibility, while establishing companies as professional and vital entities. With strong market penetration power, 74% of adults utilize some form of social media networking. In fact, 71% of adults use Facebook, while 23% use Twitter. These numbers should be of significance to new and existing commercial brands, especially when it comes to online customer service and client relations. Social media for customer service is not only faster, but also an easier and transparent way to communicate.

Social media customer service is also considered truly cost-effective. In fact, it costs around $1 per interaction, while traditional telephone service costs around $6. People also spend more time on social media networks — raising the demand for customer service across these platforms. In fact, Americans spend — on average — 37 minutes per day on social media. 70% of Facebook users log on daily, while 43% log on several times per day. These numbers prove that social media is rapidly becoming the preferred method for customer service, as well as connecting with friends, co-workers, colleagues, and business contacts. An amazing 67% now utilize Facebook and Twitter for customer service questions, concerns, and timely answers. That is more than half of the entire consumer marketplace in America!

Time to Jump Onboard

Competitors from across a myriad of industries have already switched over to social media based customer service. In fact, 67% of domestic and global businesses believe that social media customer services are the most important priorities for call centers. 35% of call center interactions are now done across social and digital platforms and if this trend continues, it will surpass phone calling (traditional and VoIP Internet phones) by 2017. Remember, VoIP is still heavily in use but has not necessary adopted and implemented direct correlation with social media platforms and networks.

Top Reasons Why American Companies Should Use Social Media

According to research and findings, 50% of customers use social media to find answers to their questions. This may be product or service related, along with requesting information on these items. 48% of American consumers use social media to share information with other customers. They also use these platforms to praise their favorite businesses and companies. This is done via customer reviews, product reviews, or industry citations. The latter plays a pivotal role in establishing higher visibility for companies across Google and other leading search engines. 46% of customers use social media to leave negative reviews for companies after a bad experience.

Customer Service and Its Effects on Company Brands

According to the Harvard Business Review, 40% of happy or satisfied customers will spend more time with a brand. In fact, they are three times more likely to recommend a brand as well — especially if they experienced great customer service. 42% of consumers will also tell friends and co-workers about a brand that they life. They will tend to leave positive reviews — and most –likely will help the brand grow and flourish with returning and recurring business. 74% of customers have spent more money due to great customer services. Three out of four consumers have also spent more money due to a great history of customer service with specific brands.

Other Facts and Figures

86% of buyers will certainly pay more for better customer service, however only 1% of consumers feel that vendors are consistently meeting their needs and goals. In addition, companies with social care programs usually experience a 7.5% year over year increase in customer retention. Those without social care experience only a 2.9% increase. When companies choose to engage customers over social media — they will see these groups spending 20% – 40% more money with these businesses than other customers do. Sadly, U.S. brand lose $41 each year due to poor customer service experiences.

Companies That Are Doing it Right

Many brands benefit from utilizing social media in their customer service efforts, including Jet Blue, Whole Foods Market, Xbox, and Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM). For companies that have not started using social media for customer service, now is the time. In fact, this growing trend is rapidly becoming the norm as opposed to the exception. With more companies now switching over to social media customer service, traditional phone calling will soon become as obsolete as desktop computers.

https://appliedpsychologydegree.usc.edu/resources/infographics/social-media-and-customer-service/

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 18, 2018

Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Kuruldu

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Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Kuruldu
Resmi Gazete’de 16 Temmuz 2018 günü yayınlanan 11 numaralı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi ile arşiv hizmet ve faaliyetlerini düzenlemek, kamuda belge yönetimini sağlamak üzere Cumhurbaşkanlığına bağlı Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı kuruldu.

11 Cumhurbaşkanlığı kararnamesi ile Cumhurbaşkanlığına bağlı Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı kuruldu.

DEVLET ARŞİVLERİ BAŞKANLIĞI

Resmi Gazete’de yayımlanan 11 numaralı Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi ile arşiv hizmet ve faaliyetlerini düzenlemek, kamuda belge yönetimini sağlamak üzere Cumhurbaşkanlığına bağlı Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı kuruldu.

Resmi Gazete’nin bugünkü sayısında yayımlanarak yürürlüğe giren kararname ile kurulan Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı, Cumhurbaşkanlığına bağlı ve genel bütçeye tabi olacak.

Kararname ile Başkanlığın görevleri de belirlendi. Buna göre, Başkanlık, kamu, özel ve yurt dışı arşivlerinde bulunan devlet, millet hayatını ilgilendiren belgeleri tespit ve tescil edecek, sertifikalandıracak, gerektiğinde ise satın alarak devlet arşivlerine kazandıracak.

Başkanlık, arşiv belgelerinin tahribini önleyecek tedbirleri alacak, arşiv laboratuvarı kuracak veya laboratuvar hizmeti satın alacak; bunların tamir, konservasyon ve restorasyonunu yapacak.

Arşivlerde gerçekleştirilecek mikrofilm ve dijitalleştirme faaliyetleri ile yenilikçi tekniklerin uygulanması için çalışma yürütecek Başkanlık, Devlet Arşiv Ağını ve Devlet Arşivi Veri Merkezini oluşturup koordine edecek.

Başkanlık ayrıca kağıt ve elektronik ortamda oluşturulan arşiv belgelerinin her türlü güvenliğine ilişkin önlemleri alacak. Düzenlemeye göre Başkan, Cumhurbaşkanına karşı sorumlu olacak ve Cumhurbaşkanı tarafından belirlenen amaç, politika ve stratejilere uygun olarak Başkanlığı yönetecek.

HİZMET BİRİMLERİ DE OLUŞTURULDU

Kararname ile Başkanlığa bağlı 9 başkanlık ve bir özel kalem müdürlüğü oluşturuldu.

Buna göre başkanlığın hizmet birimleri şunlar:

“Cumhurbaşkanlığı Arşivi Dairesi Başkanlığı, Belge Tespit ve Değerlendirme Dairesi Başkanlığı, Tasnif ve Araştırma Hizmetleri Dairesi Başkanlığı, Bilgi İşlem ve Elektronik Arşiv Dairesi Başkanlığı, Muhafaza ve Bakım Dairesi Başkanlığı, Personel ve Eğitim Dairesi Başkanlığı, Destek Hizmetleri Dairesi Başkanlığı, Dış İlişkiler ve Tanıtım Dairesi Başkanlığı, Strateji Geliştirme Dairesi Başkanlığı.”
Kararnamede ayrıca hizmet birimlerinin görevleri de belirlendi. Buna göre, Cumhurbaşkanlığı Arşivi Dairesi Başkanlığı, Atatürk ve sonraki Cumhurbaşkanları dönemlerine ait bilgi, belge, eşya, fotoğraf ve benzeri kaynakları derleyip arşivleyecek.
Öte yandan, bu Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi kapsamına giren ve elinde arşiv belgesi ve arşivlik belge bulunduran kurum ve kuruluşlar, ellerindeki arşiv belgelerini saklamak, saklanmasına gerek kalmayan belgeleri ise yok etmekle yükümlü olacaklar.
Arşiv belgesi ve arşivlik belge temliki tasarruflar amacıyla kullanılamayacak, tahrip ve tahrif edilemeyecek yurt dışına çıkartılamayacak.
Bu Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi kapsamına giren kurum ve kuruluşların kurum arşivlerinde yapılacak ayıklama ve imha işlemleri için, bünyelerinde ayıklama ve imha komisyonları oluşturulacak.

İŞ BİRLİĞİ VE BİLGİ TOPLAMA
Kararnameye göre Başkanlık, görev alanına giren konularda bakanlıklar, kamu kurum ve kuruluşları, kamu iktisadi teşebbüsleri ve kamu kurumu niteliğindeki kuruluşlar ile yakın iş birliği içinde bulunacak. Başkanlık, görevleri ile ilgili gerekli olan bilgileri bütün kamu kurum ve kuruluşlarından istemeye yetkili olacak.
Kamu kurum ve kuruluşları kendilerinden istenen bütün bilgiyi vermekle yükümlü olacak. Bu şekilde elde edilen bilgilerden ticari sır niteliğinde olanların ise gizliliğine uyulacak.

Başkanlık, görevleri ile ilgili olarak ihtiyaç duyduğu konularda araştırma, etüt ve proje ile uluslararası ikili ve çok taraflı temas ve toplantılar düzenleyebilecek. Bunlarla ilgili her türlü mal ve hizmetlerin sağlanması gibi işleri yerli ve yabancı gerçek ve tüzel kişilere sözleşme veya pazarlık suretiyle yaptırabilecek.
Başkan sınırlarını açıkça belirlemek şartıyla yetkilerinden bir kısmını astlarına devredebilecek ancak yetki devri, yetki devreden amirin sorumluluğunu kaldırmayacak.

İSTİHDAM VE GÖREVLENDİRME
Başkanlıkta 657 sayılı Devlet Memurları Kanununun ilgili ek maddesine göre Arşiv Uzmanı ve Arşiv Uzman Yardımcısı istihdam edilebilecek.
Başkanlıkta, sözleşmeli personel istihdam edilebilecek, Başkanlığa kurumlar arası geçici görevlendirme yapılabilecek. Bu suretle çalıştırılacakların sözleşme usul ve esasları ile ücret miktarı ve her çeşit ödemeleri Cumhurbaşkanınca tespit edilecek.
Başkanlığın 2018 mali yılı harcamaları, Hazine ve Maliye Bakanlığınca yeni bir düzenleme yapılıncaya kadar Cumhurbaşkanlığının 2018 yılı bütçesinde yer alan ödeneklerden karşılanacak.

Kapatılan Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü kadro ve pozisyonlarında bu Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesinin yürürlüğe girdiği tarih itibarıyla en az 2 yıl, en fazla 10 yıl görev yapan ve lisans eğitimi veren yükseköğretim kurumları veya bunlara denkliği kabul edilen yurt dışındaki öğretim kurumlarından mezun olanlar; Başkanlıkça belirlenecek usul ve esaslara göre, bir defaya mahsus olmak üzere 6 ay içerisinde yapılacak yazılı ve sözlü sınavda başarılı olmak şartıyla Arşiv Uzman Yardımcılığı kadrolarına atanabilecek.

524 KADRO İHDAS EDİLDİ
Aynı şartlarda en az 10 yıldır kurumda görev yapanlar ise bir defaya mahsus olmak üzere, yapılacak yazılı ve sözlü sınavı kazanmak şartıyla Arşiv Uzmanlığı kadrolarına atanabilecek. Bu şekilde atanacakların sayısı, Arşiv Uzmanı toplam kadro sayısının yüzde 30’unu geçemeyecek. 10 yıldan aşağı hizmeti olanlar uzman yardımcısı 10 yıldan fazla hizmeti olanlar uzman kadrolarına atandıklarında bunlar için ilgili mevzuattaki kısıtlamalar uygulanmayacak.

Kararname ile Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı için bir başkan ve 3 başkan yardımcısı, 9 daire başkanı, 1 özel kalem müdürü, arşiv uzman ve yardımcılarından oluşan 524 kadro ihdas edildi.

http://www.okumaajansi.com/devlet-arsivleri-baskanligi-kuruldu/

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 18, 2018

Türkiye bir cennet #MickScarsbrook

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https://www.facebook.com/mick.scarsbrook

Conservators in Collections Care repair a book with a broken cover to prevent further damage. Protecting Harvard’s special collections of rare books, manuscripts, prints, drawings, maps, photographs, and other treasures is the mission of Harvard Library Preservation Services.

https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2016/04/guarding-the-dazzle-of-the-past/

Banksy

One of the world’s most prominent artists has offered to help support Bristol’s library service.

Anonymous graffiti star Banksy has volunteered to lend a hand in keeping Bristol’s 27 libraries open, Bristol Mayor Marvin Rees has revealed.

It is unclear what form this support will come – although the use of the term ‘philanthropist’ suggests it could be financial.

The bombshell came at Bristol City Council’s cabinet meeting tonight (Tuesday, July 3), where Deputy Mayor for Communities, Asher Craig, announced a reprieve on sweeping cuts which would see 17 libraries close.

The shock announcement was prompted by a public forum question in which Lloyd Roberts asked if there was any truth to “rumours that a philanthropist had stepped forward to help libraries in Bristol”.

After a loaded glance between the Mayor and Ms Craig, Mr Rees confirmed the speculation but warned “you have to be careful with rumours”.

“It’s just that a very well known person from Bristol wrote in and asked us the nature of the challenge and to outline what support we need as a city to meet that challenge and that person was Banksy,” he said.

“He has come forward and talked about supporting us and we will see how that plays itself out.

“There is nothing signed and delivered and so far it is just a conversation that we had.”

Ms Craig added that other prominent people had come forward to offer financial support to the library service.

“Banksy is one of a couple of outside persons of interest and they may be investments in community parts not investing in the coffers of the council,” she said.

The council is currently talking with community groups, library users, staff and experts to figure out how to develop a “relevant, modernised and sustainable” library service .

Ms Craig revealed community groups had come forward with offers to run 16 of the 17 libraries under threat in the city and said she “trusts” communities to “come up with solutions which work for them”.

“To make it clear, all 27 libraries will remain open as they are now with a lot of community conversations getting going,” she said.

Librarian

The Deputy Mayor’s report was met with a round of applause from the cabinet and a word of thanks from the Mayor.

Many other councillors and members of the public welcomed the pause in cuts, but warned of the need for input from library staff before any reforms are pushed through.

Mr Rees declared he was slashing £1.4million from the libraries budget last year in an attempt to claw back the council’s £108million deficit by 2023.

A public consultation revealed the council planned to have one large and two smaller satellite libraries in the south, east and north west areas of Bristol, alongside keeping Central Library off College Green open.

People were asked to choose between three lists of libraries they wanted to keep and three they wouldn’t mind seeing close. The consultation was met with fierce opposition from campaign groups who accused the council of pitting communities against each other.

In November three public petitions with more than 12,000 signatures between them were presented to the council, and many library users gave impassioned speeches about the vital role the facilities play in their local communities.

In the same month Mr Rees offered the service a stay of execution and revealed the council had been awarded a central government grant to explore the possibility of launching trusts to manage individual libraries and moving services in to shared community buildings such as health centres.

At the end of June the Labour Mayor announced a U-turn on the library cuts and said all of the city’s service will remain open until after the next mayoral election in 2020.

Mr Rees has said the service needs to be modernised to be sustainable and wants to work with community group to create a new approach.

A detailed paper about the options for the future of the city’s libraries will be brought to cabinet in October.

https://www.bristolpost.co.uk/news/bristol-news/banksy-offers-bankroll-bristols-libraries-1744914

http://www.banksy.co.uk/

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 10, 2018

Sakın #kütüphaneci olmayın! Cem Özel

sakin-kutuphaneci-olmayin

Sakın kütüphaneci olmayın;

Eğer kitap okumayı sevmiyorsanız,

Ekip ruhuna güvenmiyorsanız,

İşbirliğine yatkın değilseniz,

Sabırlı değilseniz,

Eğlenmekten hoşlanmıyorsanız,

Proaktiflikten bihaberseniz,

Entelektüel bir kişi olmak sizin için yersizse,

Bulmaca çözer gibi bir bilgi peşine düşmek size cazip gelmiyorsa,

Başkalarına mesleğinizi söylemekten çekiniyorsanız,

İnsanlara yardım etmeyi sevmiyorsanız,

Mezun olur olmaz müdür olmak istiyorum sevdalısıysanız,

Bir makaleniz yayınlanırken heyecan duymayacaksanız,

Gündemi takip etmiyorsanız,

Türkçe bana yeter, yabancı bir dil öğrenmeyi ne yapayım diyorsanız,

Topluluk önünde konuşmak sizi korkutuyorsa,

Sunum yapmaktan nefret ediyorsanız,

Toplumsal sorumluluk bilinciniz yerlerdeyse,

En azından dört yıllık bir diplomam olur diyorsanız, sakın kütüphaneci olmayın.

Bütün bu yazılanları dikkate almadan kütüphaneci olmak istiyorsanız bilin ki sizi mutsuz bir gelecek bekliyor.

http://www.bbyhaber.com/bby/2018/07/09/sakin-kutuphaneci-olmayin

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 9, 2018

The Akkasah Turkey Photo Collection

akkasah

Akkasah’s collection from Turkey currently includes over 17,000 images from the late Ottoman era and the modern Turkish republic, with over 3,500 currently online. The collection is comprised primarily of amateur photographs from family albums and of individual and group portraits taken in various studios across Turkey. The collection offers a fascinating glimpse into the daily life of a rapidly Westernizing society. Though many date back to the first decade of the twentieth century and some are from as late as the 1970s and 1980s, to core of the collection focuses on the period from the 1920s through to the end of the 1950s. As such, the Akkasah collection offers a fascinating glimpse into the daily life of a rapidly Westernizing society, and provides a fresh perspective on the nation-building process seen through the lens of daily and private life.

Photography in Turkey dates back to the 1840s. Initially promoted by studios such as those of Abdullah Frères, and Sabah and Joaillier, photography quickly became popular and widespread throughout the country: this is evident in the rapid rise in the number of photographic studios in many Turkish cities in the late years of the Ottoman Empire and in the growth of vernacular photograph in the years following the founding of the Republic in 1923. Though many date back to the first decade of the twentieth century and some are from as late as the 1970s and 1980s, to core of the collection focuses on the period from the 1920s through to the end of the 1950s. As such, the Akkasah collection offers a fascinating glimpse into the daily life of a rapidly Westernizing society, and provides a fresh perspective on the nation-building process seen through the lens of daily and private life.

The Akkasah Turkey collection also contains a substantial number of orientalist postcards from major Ottoman cities including Istanbul, Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said, Damascus and Beirut.

http://akkasah.org/results/Turkey%20Collection?filter=collection_title%3ETurkey%20Collection;;&queries=&pageid=1

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 9, 2018

#Books mean all possibilities #AliSmith

Books

aljazeera

Günde 15, haftada 75 kilometre yürüyor. 20 yıldır, demiryollarında gevşeyen somun, hasarlı ray arıyor, seyir güvenliği için çalışıyor. Yol bekçisi İbrahim Çivici ile yağmurlu bir günde beraber yürüdük.

“Pazartesiden cumaya kadar, her hafta 75 km yolu yürüyerek kontrol etmek zorundayım. Peynirimi, zeytinimi çantamda taşıyorum. Sekiz saatim yolda geçiyor, kolay iş değil. Her gün ortalama 15 km yürümek zor, ağır iş.”

Sözlerin sahibi İbrahim Çivici… 59 yaşında. Devlet Demiryolları’nda tam 20 yıldır ‘yol bekçisi’.

Aydın’da sağanak yağmurlu bir gün… Sultanhisar tren istasyonunda Çivici ile buluştuk. Sultanhisar-Nazilli arasındaki 15 kilometrelik hatta yürümeye başlamadan önce istasyon şefine defterini imzalatıyor. Defterde tarih, saat, güzergâh hakkında bilgiler var. Sırtındaki çantasında kırmızı ve yeşil bayrakları, düdüğü, devir teslim defteri, metre, eldiven, somun sıkmak için anahtar ile peynir ve zeytinden oluşan öğle yemeği var.

İbrahim Çivici’nin görevi, kendisine zimmetli 75 kilometrelik demiryolu hattında tren seferlerine engel bir durum olup olmadığını, rayların, vidaların, gevşekliğini veya eksikliğini kontrol etmek. Onarabileceklerini elindeki anahtarla onarıyor. Onaramadıklarını da defterine yazıp şefine bildiriyor.

Elinde şemsiye, yağmur altında adım adım kontrol ediyor hattı. Yağmur yağmasa da işi zaten zor. Yürüdükçe üstündeki yük daha da ağırlaşıyor. İşi daha da zorlaşıyor:

“Elimdeki anahtar, sırtımdaki çanta bir süre sonra bana 20-30 kilo gibi geliyor. Ayağımdaki potinler sanki 40 kilo oluyor. Bazen köpekler etrafımı sarıyor, bazen çakallar, domuzlar çıkıyor. Bir yaz günü önümdeki 3 metrelik yılanı son anda farkettim, dondum kaldım. İnsan tedirgin oluyor. Eve gidince duş almaya bile eğreniyorum. Bakkala gidip ekmek almak bile zor geliyor.”

“Makinistler selam vermeyince üzülüyorum”

Çivici, tren seferlerinin sorunsuz gerçekleşmesi için çalışıyor. Trenler gelip geçtikçe makinistlerle selamlaşıyor. “Ama bazen makinistler selam vermiyorlar” diyor Çivici, “O zaman insanın içinde bir üzüntü, eziklik oluyor. İnsan bir selam aldığı zaman daha neşeleniyor, yaptığı işi daha bir benimsiyor, daha mutlu oluyorsun” diye de ekliyor.

59 yol bekçisi var

Türkiye’de Devlet Demiryolları bünyesinde 59 yol bekçisi var. Hızlı tren hatları ise elektronik sistemle denetleniyor.

Kaynak: Al Jazeera

http://www.aljazeera.com.tr/al-jazeera-ozel/bitmeyen-yol

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 9, 2018

Cehennemi dünyaya tanıtan yazar #Dante

Dante

Dante’nin İlahi Komedya’sında tasvir ettiği ölümden sonra yaşam Avrupa’da Rönesans’ı ve Reformasyon’u nasıl etkiledi, modern dünyanın doğmasına nasıl katkıda bulundu?

“İçeri girenler, dışarıda bırakın her umudu.”

Dante, İlahi Komedya adlı eserinde, Cehennem kapısında bu sözlerin yazılı olduğunu anlatır.

14 bin 233 mısradan oluşan İlahi Komedya 1320 yılında Floransalı Dante Alighieri tarafından yazılmıştı. 1265’te doğan Dante, hem yazmayı seviyor hem de eczacı olmak istiyordu. Parşömen veya kağıt üzerine yazılmış sözlerin de ilaçlar gibi zihni etkileyeceğine inanıldığından eczanelerde kitap satılan bir dönemdi bu.

İlahi Komedya yazıldığından bu yana pek çok sanatçıya, edebiyatçı, ressam, heykeltıraşa ilham kaynağı oldu. Cehennem tasvirini dini kitaplardan çok Dante’nin eserinde gördük. Botticelli, Blake, Delacroix ve Dali bu tasvirleri resimlerine, Rodin heykellerine yansıttı.

Kimileri İlahi Komedya’yı “en büyük edebi eser” olarak tanımlarken ünlü İngiliz edebiyatçı T.S. Elliot şöyle diyordu: “Dante ve Shakespeare dünyayı aralarında paylaşmıştır. Üçüncü biri yoktur.”

İlahi Komedya’nın tek satırını okumamış olsanız bile hayatınızda onun izleri vardır.

Cehenneme ziyaret

Dante, İlahi Komedya’ya Cehennem yolculuğu ile başlar. Sonra antik Roma’nın şairi Virgil’in kılavuzluğunda Arafa, daha sonra ise aşık olduğu ama erken yaşta ölen Beatrice ile Cennete gidecektir.

Dante’nin Cehennem, Araf ve Cennet tasviri Hristiyanlığın yanı sıra Yunan ve Roma mitlerinden etkilenmiştir. Gerçek dünya tarihi teolojiyle iç içe geçmiştir. Şeytan’ın üç ağzı vardır; birinde İsa’ya ihanet eden Yahuda, diğerlerinde ise Sezar’a ihanet eden Brütüs ve Cassius’u tutmaktadır.

İntizar

Tarihe, mitlere ve kutsal kitaplara yaptığı bu göndermelerle Dante aslında döneminin politikalarına dair yorumlar yapmakta, başına gelenlerin intikamını almaktadır.

Örneğin Papa’ya askeri yardımda bulunarak Kutsal Roma İmparatorluğu’nun altını oymaya çalışan ve Floransa’daki yöneticilerle ittifak halinde Dante’yi oradan süren Fransız kralı Charles’ı hikayede hedef alacaktır.

https://www.bbc.com/turkce/vert-cul-44385290

Global heat wave

financialforce

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 7, 2018

#Art school of fish by John Atkinson

art-school-of-fish

another-art-school-of-fish

https://wronghands1.com/

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 6, 2018

#Bookends by Design Atelier Article

il_fullxfull.560086839_59jy_700x

https://atelierarticle.com/collections/bookends

Utopia-9-920x690

Utopia, the Library and Academy for Performing Arts, is situated on the corner of Oude Graanmarkt and Esplanadestraat in Aalst. The 8.000 square-meter brick structure incorporates a striking historic building from the second half of the Nineteenth century, the so-called Pupillenschool, and rejuvenates the urban landscape while elegantly giving expression to the required functionality. Both outside and inside, the historic façades blend perfectly with the generous spaces, while the brickwork dialogues with light gray concrete elements. Taking its cue from Thomas More’s acclaimed book “Utopia”, first printed by prominent Aalst citizen Dirk Martens, the new building has a functionally driven plan in order to achieve a sense of spatial freedom and it has been slotted into the urban fabric to enhance the characteristic irregular streets and intimate spaces of the city center.

Utopia – Library & Academy for Perfoming Arts

http://kaanarchitecten.com/project/utopia-library-academy-perfoming-arts/

http://www.arkitera.com/haber/30389/askeri-okul-kutuphane-ve-performans-sanatlari-merkezine-donusturuldu

editörden

Değerli okurlarımız,
Tüm dünyada uygulanan akademik performans değerlendirmelerinin büyük bir ideası var; her şeyi ölçmek… Araştırmayı ölçmek, araştırmacıyı ölçmek, üniversiteyi ölçmek, ülkeyi ölçmek… Bu ideanın yönetici ve karar vericilerin kafasında yarattığı en önemli yanılgı ise her şeyin ölçülebilir olduğu. Her şeyin ölçülebilir olduğu sanrısı her şeyin sayılara indirgenmesi ile son buluyor ve bu indirgenme akademinin temelini derinden sarsıyor. Fark etmiyoruz. Akademi tamamen çökmeden de fark edemeyeceğiz. Farklı farklı konular için yıllardır kullanılan tenceredeki kurbağa örneğinin en çok akademinin mevcut durumuna uyduğunu söylemek yanlış olmaz. Bu örneği kısaca hatırlatmak gerekirse eğer bir kurbağa kaynayan bir tencereye atılırsa zıplar, kaçar ve kurtulur. Ancak su dolu bir tencereye konur ve su yavaş yavaş kaynatılırsa kurbağa suyun sıcaklığını fark edemez ve sonunda ölür. Yani bir olayı veya süreci etkileyen unsurları kademeli şekilde artırırsanız insanlar buna alışmaya/fark etmemeye ve normal olanın bu olduğunu düşünmeye başlar. Sonunda algılanan bu “normal” var olan sistemi yok eder. Belki biraz ağır olabilir ama Türkiye’deki mevcut akademik sistem çöküyor ve bunun en önemli müsebbibi her şeyi sayılara indirgeyen değerlendirme ve teşvikler.

http://www.tk.org.tr/index.php/TK/article/view/2919/2825

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 5, 2018

High performance #LibraryDesign

high perf

0 (1)

Interview: Vivek Wadhwa and Alex Salkever.

Vivek Wadhwa is a Distinguished Fellow at Harvard Law School’s Labor and Worklife Program, a professor at Carnegie Mellon University’s College of Engineering, has written several books and been a columnist for Fortune, the Washington Postand other noted publications.

Alex Salkever is an author and technology executive who formerly served as technology editor at BusinessWeek and as a visiting researcher at Duke University. He advises technology companies on product, strategy and marketing and is a regular columnist for Fortune.

The two paired up to write the book The Driver in the Driverless Car: How Our Technology Choices Can Change the Future.

Now they’ve teamed up again to write a new book: Your Happiness Was Hacked: Why Tech Is Winning the Battle to Control Your Brain–and How to Fight Back.

In it, they examine the question of how technology influences our thoughts and behaviors. They focus on the four key areas of Love, Work, Self, and Society and document problems caused by technology–and then suggest strategies to take back control of technology.

I was eager to hear from Alex and Vivek about happiness, habits, and productivity.

Gretchen: What’s a simple habit or activity that consistently makes you happier, healthier, more productive, or more creative?

Alex: This may sound strange, but doing the dishes! It’s a structured activity and I have a specific way of doing it that gives me some comfort. Every dish type has its place. And I have a routine around washing dishes – the small spoons go in the same basket, the desert bowls fit into the upper rack on right. More conventionally, I love going walking or jogging in the redwood forest near my house. If I am close to an ocean, I try to go surfing to clear my head. It’s my passion. I sometimes get my best ideas out there. And I can honestly say I have never gotten out of the water less happy than when I got into the water. In general, it’s a question I ask – do I feel happier and more fulfilled after I do something. If the answer is consistently “No” then I try to curtail that activity. If the answer is “Yes!” I try to do more of that activity.

Vivek: For me, going for a hike and getting off the grid is really crucial in keeping me healthy and productive. I also meditate daily to slow down my brain, which naturally runs at a really high speed. I make sure to spend some time every week disconnected and on a trail. And there is the question of happiness: spending as much time as possible with family is the best route for me.

Gretchen: What’s something you know now about building healthy habits or happiness that you didn’t know when you were 18 years old?

Alex: Don’t beat up on yourself if you don’t succeed in building healthy habits. Establishing and maintaining healthy habits is very hard, really a lifelong process that never stops. But make sure the habits you prioritize the highest and work the hardest to fulfill are the ones that make you happiest. When I was living in Hawaii as a recent college graduate, I made it a priority to get in the water and go surfing at least five days per week. I was often busy building a writing career which eventually took me to BusinessWeek and into books. But come 4 pm, I was in the water and to this day some of my happiest memories are with me. That lesson – prioritize what is the most important – is something I wish I had known when I was very young. I would have worried a lot less and probably had more fun.

Vivek: You should follow your heart. It is easy to follow your mind or your hunger, but that little voice inside guides you on practically everything if you listen to it. This comes into play the most in happiness, when you are having to make decisions about what is right and wrong. There are choices we have to make every day that need to be based on our values.

Gretchen: Do you have any habits that continually get in the way of your happiness?

Alex: Oh, definitely. Compulsively checking texts. In the book, I write about how I almost killed a group of cyclists while texting and driving on this dangerous coastal highway north of San Francisco. It was the stupidest thing. How could I risk so much just to read a text? But I’m not that different than tens of millions of people. (I’ve since set a new habit of putting my phone away when I get behind the wheel). I get distracted by shiny objects on the internet and have to work hard to stay focused. I struggle to not check email and read random news on the internet (usually on Hacker News). And I have to work hard to put down the smartphone and leave it alone, or in a drawer. I can honestly say my technology addiction is my worst bad habit – it pushes me towards doing the “urgent” or tackling the “noisy” task rather than working on what’s really important. I never met anyone who said they wish they had spent more time answering emails or looking at pictures on Facebook. And I personally find the less time I spend with technology, the more happy I am (to a certain point – I need technology to earn a living, of course).

Vivek: I’m like Alex. I had a heart attack a few years ago driven in part by my technology-induced stress levels (I write about that in the book). So I have to work hard to disconnect and not feel like I need to respond to things quickly. I’ve gotten much better at it, though, and have built some systems around it. Like I don’t even bother to check voice mails a lot of the time and I post to social media but I don’t read that much on social media; it’s not the best use of time. Technology really is an addiction, that you have to manage–and overcome!

Gretchen: Which habits are most important to you?

Alex: Spending time with my children. I try to do it every day, for at least a few hours. Usually playing sports or talking. Reading is next. I think that reading is the best habit for lifelong learning and it helps with other skills like concentration and meditation.

Vivek: Meditation and mindfulness.

Gretchen: Have you ever managed to gain a challenging healthy habit—or to break an unhealthy habit? If so, how did you do it?

Alex: A healthy habit I started a year ago that has stuck is running in the morning when I wake up. It was a hard one to get going. I like running but am not really a morning person. I also have a bad habit of staying up late to read and sometimes I get creative inspiration at night. I’m not a night owl but I’m not a lark, either. I did a few things. First, I started laying out my running clothes – socks, shorts, shoes, t-shirt – every evening before I went to bed. That removed a mental barrier which may seem insignificant but actually was a key obstacle. I am a time counter so if it took me five minutes to gather my clothes, in my mind I would subtract five minutes from my running time and sometimes that took me below the threshold of where it was worthwhile to run. Second, I would write down a mini activity diary for the next day and would list in the “Exercise” section the run I planned. This was both an affirmation and a commitment. Third, I switched my running routine to places where I love to run. There are a few trails near my house that go through forests of oak, laurel and redwoods and one stunning trail down to the Pacific Ocean past hills of wildflowers. It takes a few minutes extra to drive to those trailheads. I don’t have enough time to get to them by running and get to work. But running in those beautiful places makes it so much more pleasurable that it feels like a real reward. Lastly, after my run I would stop at my favorite coffee shop and buy an Americano, my favorite coffee drink. By putting these pieces together – planning and reward – it helped me turn a resolution into a pretty robust habit that’s stuck for a year.

Vivek: I try to switch off all technology by 9 PM and get to bed by 10 PM. And then I wake as early as I can. It is easy to watch late shows and stay connected, but early to bed and early to rise is the best habit of all.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/reading-best-habit-lifelong-learning-helps-other-skills-rubin/

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 5, 2018

LIBER #OpenScience Roadmap

roadmap

Open Science undoubtedly has the power to positively influence society. It can make science more collaborative, reproducible, transparent and impactful.

Its implementation is, however, not yet universal. A revolution is required: one which opens up research processes and changes mindsets in favour of a world where policies, tools and infrastructures universally support the growth and sharing of knowledge.

Research libraries are well placed to make that revolution happen and LIBER, as Europe’s largest network of research libraries, wants to support them in that endeavour. That’s why LIBER has written an Open Science Roadmap outlining the specific actions libraries can take to champion Open Science, both within and beyond their own institutions.

The Roadmap calls for libraries to advocate for Open Science locally and internationally, to support Open Science through tools and services and to expand the impact of their work through collaboration and partnerships. The challenges, opportunities and practical steps which can be taken are explained in the context of seven focus areas:

  • Scholarly Publishing
  • FAIR Data
  • Research Infrastuctures and the EOSC
  • Metrics & Rewards
  • Open Science Skills
  • Research Integrity
  • Citizen Science

LIBER Open Science Roadmap

İş Cinayeti İnfografik

http://www.guvenlicalisma.org/

What-is-the-single-most-important-element-to-ensure-the-future-success-of-libraries-Poll-results

Poll-results-600x467

The future of libraries has become a topic on everyone’s agenda in the library world. Although libraries are somehow influenced by the same trends worldwide, each library sings a different tune, adapted to their user community’s needs.

Thus, it is difficult for library professionals to define a clear-cut future for libraries as there is no single blueprint to the future that applies to all libraries.

Although #libraries are somehow influenced by the same trends worldwide, each #library sings a different tune, adapted to their user community’s needs.

With the Princh Blog, we aim to offer you new perspectives and insights from libraries experts to help you in our activity. But at the same time, we strive to learn more about you – our reader – and your challenges in your path to defining your future of libraries.

For this, we’ve added a new feature to our blog posts; polls and questions. This way, whenever we find an interesting question for you, you’ll find a new poll on our blog. (So, don’t forget to revisit our blog from time to time to see the results. Or follow us on Facebook or Twitter and we’ll remind you).

Last week’s poll results: Transitioning towards a more community-focused library

Last week, as a start point, we asked you to pick the single most important element that you think will ensure the future success of libraries. Was it more funding, maintaining or improving the library staff’s educational level or transitioning towards a more community-focused library?

We know, you would have preferred more options to choose from. But we wanted to know what you think is the decisive factor that will change the way libraries function in the future.

https://princh.com/what-is-the-single-most-important-element-to-ensure-the-future-success-of-libraries/

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 5, 2018

#AcademicLibrary Design by VMDO Architects + KSQ Design

Academic Library Design

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 5, 2018

#LearningSpaces design by VMDO Architects

learning spaces design

At VMDO we strive to create spaces that support and enhance student learning.

Posted by: bluesyemre | July 5, 2018

2018 top trends in #AcademicLibraries

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A review of the trends and issues affecting academic libraries in higher education

Every other year, the ACRL Research Planning and Review Committee produces a document on top trends in higher education as they relate to academic librarianship. Topics in this edition of ACRL Top Trends will be familiar to some readers who will hopefully learn of new materials to expand their knowledge. Other readers will be made aware of trends that are outside of their experience. This is the nature of trends in our current technological and educational environments: change is continual, but it affects different libraries at different rates. The 2018 top trends share several overarching themes, including the impact of market forces, technology, and the political environment on libraries.

Publisher and vendor landscape

Publishers and database providers continue to move beyond their traditional functions of research dissemination and distribution into areas of enriched discovery, analytics, productivity, and research workflow.

In August 2017, Elsevier purchased institutional repository and publishing platform bepress. This purchase followed Elsevier’s purchases of SSRN and Plum and exemplifies a trend of major publishers purchasing and developing services that radically extend their capabilities beyond publishing.1 More recently, Digital Science has announced a new tool, Dimensions, which is intended to “reimagine” article discovery and access through, among other things, a citation databases and research analytics suite.2 Clarivate Analytics, perhaps best known for providing access to indexing and citation resources, such as Web of Science, Journal Citation Reports, and Endnote, has continued to expand its commercial reach into the scholarly infrastructure realm and ecosystem with the acquisition of Publons (a peer-review platform) and Kopernio (which aims to provide more seamless access to licensed and open access content).3

As these large publishers and vendors turn more attention to the publishing infrastructure and elements of scholarly communication, they are becoming full-service providers supporting every aspect of scholars’ publication workflow from discovery to dissemination.4 These changes could have major impacts on smaller publishers, independent service providers, and academic libraries in the coming years.5

The attraction of this model lies in streamlining disparate elements of academic research and publishing with a single provider that can coordinate funding, data collection and analysis, collaboration across institutional and international boundaries, writing, publication, and promotion of published materials. How researchers find information impacts the marketplace.

Kyle Siler argues that academics are more likely to acquire information through online search than through reading,6 and if this is the case, large publishers have the infrastructural advantage in making scholarship more visible. This might seem like a familiar conundrum for libraries to contemplate: Is this the new version of the “Big Deal,” where we are caught between demonstrating our value to researchers and determining sustainable commitments to licensed content and platforms?

An article in the Chronicle of Higher Education is one of the recent calls to members of the academic community to be more informed about the choices they make and be more active to change the climate.7 The efforts of European institutions, particularly in Germany and the Netherlands, to forward alternative approaches to open access and negotiations with major publishers, are other notable examples of actions toward sustainability of the scholarly information ecosystem.8

Attempts to change the payment model for scholarly publishing have also gained traction in the OA2020 movement. This is a trend for librarians to monitor, as it could have significant implications for collections budgets, subscriptions, and campus priorities.

In an effort to streamline access to licensed content and reduce or eliminate the need for users to resort to tools like SciHub and ResearchGate (threatened with a lawsuit), publishers, librarians, and other stakeholders have been collaborating on RA21.9 Highwire Press, meanwhile, has partnered with Google Scholar to develop CASA (Campus-Activated Subscriber Access).10 These tools propose a federated identity system that would eliminate the need for IP authentication and proxy servers, allowing users to login once and be recognized across all participating platforms.

There are numbers of issues at play in the establishment and diffusion of federated identity systems,11including 1) privacy concerns associated with the aggregation of this much user data, 2) potential challenges for smaller publishers unable to participate in the federated process, and 3) an increase in barriers faced by on-campus users. Access and discovery will continue to be both a priority and a challenge for libraries, as outside companies and individuals develop alternative mechanisms that are perceived as easier to use.12

Fake news and information literacy

Though far from being a new phenomenon, fake news has proved to be highly influential as a descriptive term and rhetorical device. Fake news played a significant role in the 2016 presidential election,13 and is a phrase frequently used by the current President of the United States to undermine mainstream news media. Libraries have responded to the issue of fake news, defined as deliberate misinformation that relies on attention-grabbing or inflammatory content to spread widely and influence others, by promoting information literacy as a means of verifying the accuracy and credibility of information. Initiatives, such as IFLA’s “How To Spot Fake News” infographic, have gone viral and appeared in international news.14

Fake news and other forms of specious information presented as fact have drawn new attention to the old problems of resource evaluation and information credibility. Librarians have been quick to respond, and information trust and fake news are topics of forthcoming research studies from Project Information Literacy, a book from ALA Editions, and the spring 2018 issue of Reference and User Services Quarterly.15 Academic librarians have developed numerous workshops and research guides devoted to fighting fake news and to promoting information literacy.

Going forward, it will be important to consider the complexity of fake news and the limits of information literacy in fighting it. A recent study found that fake news may not be as profoundly influential as previously reported, primarily affects hyperpartisan readers, and generally is used by individuals to reinforce what they want to believe.16 The problem of fake news is not restricted to facts as information alone is unlikely to change one’s beliefs.17 The impact of the fractured and contested media landscape is well worth further consideration and action from the profession, and opens possibilities for partnerships with other people on our campuses who face the same concerns.

Project management approaches in libraries

Project management principles focus on an incremental, team-based approach when tackling large, digital projects, enabling libraries to effectively and efficiently prioritize staffing models, collections, and budgets. Project management has become part of the everyday work of many academic librarians, and most of them have participated in three-to-eight projects in the last five years.”18 This is especially true as academic libraries collaborate on scholarly digital projects or involve institutional partners beyond the library or campus.19

Michael J. Dulock and Holley Long report on how their library incorporated project management methodology adapted from techniques used in agile software development to deliver digital objects and collections with recommendation for other libraries.20 Documentation and visualization of the iterative process has evolved from group editing bulleted, narrative texts and Gantt charts to more robust, collaborative software and applications that can be shared across many users and several institutional partners.

With an increased need for the knowledge and skills associated with formal project management principles, many professionals traditionally trained in library and information science find themselves lacking or needing additional coursework to become familiar with, or certified, in project management.

James H. Walther, a library and information management professor, examined the specific skill of project management by tailoring graduate coursework to incorporate personal course plans. From this approach he recommends using this teaching method more broadly in library and information science education.21 Brett D. Currier, Rafia Mirza, and Jeff Downing propose that project management planning skills have always existed within libraries and librarians, but an increased involvement in digital humanities initiatives requires an adjustment to a more “holistic mindset,” where librarians “position themselves as collaborative partners on projects instead of service providers to projects.”22

Textbook affordability and OER

Open Educational Resources (OER) continue to demonstrate importance in a number of ways: sustainable collections in libraries, affordable textbooks for students, new options for curriculum development, and avenues for digital scholarship. Challenges to faculty adoption include difficulty finding resources, lack of resources in a subject area, quality, and the content updates.23 These perceived barriers can turn into opportunities for librarians to cultivate partnerships with faculty in the discovery, advocacy, and preservation of OER.

To build a sustainable OER collection in any medium, librarians must first identify user needs in supporting curriculum and research through a variety of collection management practices. By incorporating OER into the curriculum, librarians have the unique opportunity to develop collaborations with faculty, subject librarians, and academic technologists to assist in determining what OER are available, assessing their quality, and adding these materials into the course management system (CMS).24

Librarians have also advocated for the adoption of OER through grant award programs and assistance in developing and publishing OER.25 OER production can be a goal for library-based publishing efforts by leveraging advocacy efforts through the library and publishing experience through university presses to reduce costs for students, while showcasing research and teaching strengths at a university.26

Libraries are not the only group advocating for OERs and textbook affordability. There are numerous campus partners, including students. To help students with controlling the cost of their education and to encourage faculty to choose affordable options, some schools include designators in their course registration systems to indicated courses with low-cost and zero-cost required texts.27

A number of libraries are also leveraging their e-book content to support textbook affordability initiatives. These initiatives focus on providing e-access to course texts, as well as offering faculty the ability to consider and select available e-book titles for course use.28 Limitations in the marketplace, such as DRM restrictions and required logins and software that users may not have already installed, are impediments to implementation.

Products from publishers and CMS platforms may create opportunities for libraries to work with faculty. The CMS Canvas allows for a feed from the bookstore into individual courses highlighting required texts.29 EBSCO Course Builder integrates with the Blackboard CMS to enable faculty to search EBSCO30 and quickly create their own links to readings from within the CMS.

These approaches are an evolution of the traditional print and e-reserves roles of the library, and leverage content that the library has licensed, creating an opportunity for awareness of the library’s value for the library to support faculty course development in new ways.

Learning analytics, data collection, and ethical concerns

The use of learning analytics, which involves the mining and analysis of student data to make improvements or predictions based on past student behavior, has intensified across higher education. Academic libraries are part of this trend, tying the use of library materials and services to student performance measures, such as GPA and retention rates. The use of learning analytics is viewed by some librarians and administrators as a promising tool for achieving positive outcomes for students and institutions, as well as for illustrating ways that academic libraries contribute to institutional productivity and academic achievement. The ACRL Academic Library Impact report advocates working with stakeholders to “statistically analyze and predict student learning and success based on shared analytics.”31

Learning analytics, however, may pose significant conflicts with ALA’s Code of Ethics and “professional commitments to promote intellectual freedom; protect patron privacy and confidentiality; and balance intellectual property interests between library users, their institution, and content creators and vendors.”32

Across higher education, concerns are being raised about reducing student learning and experiences to a set of variables and using data to identify “at-risk” students. The ethical dimensions of involvement in this area will be of increasing importance as college and research library participation in analytics programs progresses.

Librarians and other information professionals have raised concerns regarding how patron data is captured by library discovery tools and, in particular, how and with whom it is shared. Libraries seek to provide more refined and efficient services (marketing, discovery interfaces, collection use), but these improvements may be generated or informed through the analysis of user activity, creating a conundrum between user service and user privacy.33 For example, proxy servers might involve collecting user IDs (and associated demographic information) and relating them to use of resources originating from that user. Issues of privacy and data aggregation and retention must be considered and balanced against library service enhancement, and often necessitate sustained communications between campus IT and the library.34

Research datasets acquisition, text mining, and data science

With the growth of data science and quantitative research needs, collection managers have engaged in the establishment of more defined guidelines and best practices for the acquisition of standalone spatial and quantitative datasets. Data sources now go beyond text and numeric data, extending to multimedia data, social media data, and hypertext and hypermedia data.35

Relevant mining techniques and methods range from information extraction, information retrieval, natural language processing, classification, and clustering to different ways of text summarization.36

Datasets possess their own sets of acquisition and management challenges, including licensing restrictions, access and ownership, support, maintenance, discovery, and cost. Some libraries are beginning to offer more secure and dedicated funding lines for research datasets.37 Most libraries are determining the best means of managing, funding, and developing these small data set collections.38

There are challenges to the librarian and researcher since data sources are usually in silos and use different standards, rendering data integration difficult.39 When dealing with datasets containing sensitive information, such as social media data, enterprise data, and health data, privacy-preserving techniques need to be applied carefully throughout the data integration, sharing, and processing stages.40

Getting access to data remains a significant challenge. Many datasets are copyright-protected, and fair use rights could be limited by licenses.41 There are still a variety of approaches among vendors for access to their respective corpus of data/text, which may or may not be in line with library best practices or library technical capabilities (e.g., dedicated servers for storage or development of content requirement of local developer resources to support).

Librarians can assist researchers by clarifying legal aspects and negotiating licensing permissions with publishers.42 By creating guides on text and data mining tools and methods and providing information on library databases and data sources, librarians support training and awareness of the data resources and tools that they purchase. Librarians and library technicians also provide support in areas such as digitization, data extraction, data preparation, and even devising models for data analysis.43 At the end of text and data-mining projects, libraries may help preserve the datasets for reuse, assist researchers to contribute to open access datasets, and record metadata for discovery.44

The establishment of data science programs at numerous institutions has led to the need for librarians to adapt and integrate growing management, accessibility, and technical subject expertise to support data scientists.45 Professional associations and information science programs should continue to expand and enhance training in data management and data analytics to prepare librarians in using and addressing big data questions with colleagues and patrons.46

Collection management

Acquisition model developments

Demand-driven acquisition (DDA) patterns continue to evolve as the majority of publishers have altered, restricted or eliminated their short-term loan (STL) options (particularly for front-list titles). These market changes and publisher responses to revenue losses have challenged the sustainability and attractiveness of broad-based e-book DDA.47

A more viable option for numerous libraries has been to engage with established library vendors for new DDA plans that do away with the STL model and provide non-DRM (digital rights management) access to university press titles. Although the corpus of titles, particularly frontlist titles, remains limited, aggregators are working to provide more DRM-free options, as well, for purchase through book jobbers.

Outside of “traditional” e-book DDA plans, newer streaming video plans have become increasingly popular to meet demand for streaming content.48

The evidence-based acquisitions model (EBM) is a newer development, in which libraries make an upfront financial commitment to a publisher list of titles, and subsequently choose an agreed amount of titles for perpetual ownership. While this model is attractive to libraries and publishers alike, principal concerns of the EBA model are 1) the potential need for long-term annual commitment, due to potential variations in e-book use by discipline, and 2) the need for robust usage statistics for decision-making.

Open access collection development policies and funding schemes

A continuing challenge for collection budgets and policies surrounds the funding of open access initiatives, including the support of article-processing charges. David W. Lewis has called on libraries to consider devoting 2.5% of their budgets to supporting the open access infrastructure.49 Depending on how the open access investment is defined50 and an individual library’s budget, 2.5% could have a substantial impact on the collections budget.

Cumulatively, if many libraries devote 2.5%, this could also have a substantial impact on open access initiatives. Therefore, it is incumbent upon libraries, particularly collection managers, to establish clear policies that outline parameters for the support and funding of specific open access initiatives and programs.51 In addition, there is increasing discussion about how to incorporate open access developments into collection decision-making, in particular, in relation to ever-increasing serial budgets (an open access-adjusted cost per download measure as proposed by Kristin Antelman).52 There has been some movement both in the United States and Europe for vendor licenses that allow for suspension of author-processing charges in the publisher’s journal.53

Legacy print collections

Several new large-scale print retention initiatives are in various stages of development, including the HathiTrust Print Retention Program, which has amassed retention commitments of more than 4.8 million volumes from member institutions.54 At the same time as libraries are digitizing collections and purchasing more in electronic format, there is discussion in the profession about how to manage, promote, and engage users with the library print collection. The Arizona State University report on open stacks, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, begins to explore potential approaches to better tailor, diversify, and market the local print collection, and includes materials and tools to help guide individual libraries.55 Interestingly, some traditional measures, such as in-house usage, are being used to better understand patron engagement with onsite collections.56

Notes

  1. Lindsay Mackenzie, “Elsevier Expands Footprint in Scholarly Workflow.” Inside Higher Ed, August 3, 2017, http://bit.ly/2oD3Zpg.
  2. Daniel Hook and Christian Herzog, “The Next Generation of Discovery—Dimensions,” Digital Science, January 14, 2018, https://bit.ly/2DiTd01.
  3. See Richard Van Noorden, “Web of Science Owner Buys Up Booming Peer-Review Platform,” June 1, 2017, https://go.nature.com/2qrfsJNn, and Roger Schonfeld, “In Latest Sign of Its Resurgence, Clarivate Acquires Kopernio” The Scholarly Kitchen, April 10, 2018, https://bit.ly/2GOOXIf.
  4. Alejandro Posada and George Chen, “Preliminary Findings: Rent-Seeking by Elsevier: Publishers are Increasingly in Control of Scholarly Infrastructure and Why We Should Care,” The Knowledge Gap: Geopolitics of Academic Production (blog), accessed April 8, 2018, http://bit.ly/2xKRnSr.
  5. Roger Schonfeld, “Workflow Strategy for Those Left Behind: Strategic Context,” The Scholarly Kitchen,December 18, 2017, http://bit.ly/2FbGo9I.
  6. Kyle Siler, “Future Challenges and Opportunities in Academic Publishing,” Canadian Journal of Sociology42, no. 1: 83–114.
  7. Andrew V. Suarez and Terry McGlynn, “The Fallacy of Open-Access Publication,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 15, 2017.
  8. Gretchen Vogel and Kai Kupferschmidt, “A Bold Open-Access Push in Germany Could Change the Future of Academic Publishing,” Science | AAAS, August 23, 2017.
  9. “RA21: Resource Access for the 21st Century,” accessed January 29, 2018, https://ra21.org/.
  10. “HighWire Press Adds CASA to Eliminate Barriers to off-Campus and Mobile Access to Subscriptions,” accessed April 10,2017, http://bit.ly/2FaQH9J.
  11. Lisa Janicke Hinchliffe, “What Will You Do When They Come for Your Proxy Server?” The Scholarly Kitchen,January 16, 2018, http://bit.ly/2F8PZOz.
  12. Kendall Bartsch, “The Napster Moment: Access and Innovation in Academic Publishing,” Information Services & Use 37, no. 3: 343–48.
  13. Eric Alterman, “The News is Breaking,” Nation 306, no. 5 (February 26, 2018): 6–8.
  14. “IFLA—How To Spot Fake News,” International Federation of Library Associations, 5 December 2017, https://www.ifla.org/publications/node/11174.
  15. “How Do Students Consume News?” Project Information Literacy, January 12, 2018, http://www.projectinfolit.org/news_study.html; Nicole A. Cooke, Fake News and Alternative Facts: Information Literacy in a Post-Truth Era, ALA Editions, 2018; Reference and User Services Quarterly, “Special Edition: Trusted Information in an Age of Uncertainty,” Spring 2018.
  16. Andrew Guess, Brendan Nyhan, and Jason Reifler, “Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from the Consumption of Fake News during the 2016 U.S. Presidential Campaign” accessed April 10, 2018, https://www.dartmouth.edu/~nyhan/fake-news-2016.pdf.
  17. Shankar Vedantam, “How Humans Use ‘Strategic Ignorance’ When Facts Get In The Way,” NPR, December 22, 2017, http://n.pr/2Fc54dS.
  18. Silvia Cobo Serrano and Rosario Arquero Aviles, “Academic Librarians and Project Management: An International Study,” portal: Libraries & the Academy 16, no. 3 (2016): 465–75.
  19. Theresa Burress and Chelcie Juliet Rowell, “Project Management for Digital Projects with Collaborators Beyond the Library,” College & Undergraduate Libraries 24, nos. 2–4 (April 2017): 300–21.
  20. Michael J. Dulock and Holley Long, “Digital Collections are a Sprint, Not a Marathon: Adapting Scrum Project Management Techniques to Library Digital Initiatives,” Information Technology & Libraries 34, no. 4 (2015): 5–17.
  21. James H. Walther, “Developing Personal Course Plans (PCPs) as an Example of Self-Directed Learning in Library Management and Project Management Education,” Journal of Library Administration 58, no. 1 (2018): 91–100.
  22. Brett D. Currier, Rafia Mirza, and Jeff Downing, “They Think all of This is New: Leveraging Librarians’ Project Management Skills for the Digital Humanities,” College & Undergraduate Libraries 24, no. 2–4 (April 2017): 270–89.
  23. Tomalee Doan, “Why Not OER?” portal: Libraries and the Academy 17, no. 4 (2017): 665.
  24. Andrew Wesolek, Anne Langley and Jonathan Lashley, eds., OER: A Field Guide for Academic Librarians, Pacific Grove: Pacific University Press, 2017.
  25. Jeremy Smith, “Seeking Alternatives to High-Cost Textbooks: Six Years of the Open Education Initiative at the University of Massachusetts Amherst,” in OER: A Field Guide for Academic Librarians, eds., Andrew Wesolek, Anne Langley, and Jonathan Lashley (Pacific Grove: Pacific University Press, 2017).
  26. Faye A. Chadwell and Dianna M. Fisher, “Creating Open Textbooks: A Unique Partnership between Oregon State University Libraries and Press and Open Oregon State,” Open Praxis 8, no. 2 (2016): 123–30.
  27. See https://www.affordablelearninggeorgia.org/about/course_catalog_designators, and https://www.lanecc.edu/oer/oer-and-low-cost-designations, accessed April 11, 2018.
  28. Jason Boczar and Laura Pascual, “E-Books for the Classroom and Open Access Textbooks: Two Ways to Help Students Save on Textbooks,” The Serials Librarian 72, nos. 1-4 (2017): 95–101.
  29. See https://www.eou.edu/lms/bookstore_integration/, accessed April 9, 2018.
  30. See https://help.ebsco.com/interfaces/Curriculum_Builder, accessed April 9, 2018.
  31. Lynn Silipigni Connaway, William Harvey, Vanessa Kitzie, and Stephanie Mikitish, Academic Library Impact: Improving Practice and Essential Areas to Research (Chicago, IL: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2017).
  32. Kyle M. L. Jones and Dorothea Salo, “Learning Analytics and the Academic Library: Professional Ethics Commitments at a Crossroads,” College & Research Libraries 79, no. 3 (April 2018): 304–23.
  33. Shayna Pekala, “Privacy and User Experience in 21st Century Library Discovery,” Information Technology and Libraries 36, no. 2 (June 2017): 53.
  34. Tiffany LeMaistre, Qingmin Shi, and Sandip Thanki, “Connecting Library Use to Student Success,” portal: Libraries and the Academy 18, no. 1 (January 2018): 117-140.
  35. Pankaj Kumar Singh, “Significance of Data Mining for Library Personnel,” International Journal of Information Dissemination & Technology 6, no. 3 (2016): 159–60.
  36. Ramzan Talib, Muhammad Kashif Hanif, Shaeela Ayesha, and Fakeeha Fatima, “Text Mining: Techniques, Applications and Issues,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA) 7, no. 11 (2016): 414–18.
  37. See https://www.lib.umich.edu/library-data-grants-program, accessed April 10, 2018.
  38. Karen Hogenboom and Michele Hayslett, “Pioneers in the Wild West: Managing Data Collections,” portal: Libraries and the Academy 111, no. 2 (2017): 295–319.
  39. Nancy Herther, Daniel Dollar, Darby Orcutt, Alicia Wise, and Meg White, “Text and Data Mining Contracts: The Issues and Needs,” in Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference, 2016.
  40. Ganesh D. Puri and D. Haritha, “Survey Big Data Analytics, Applications and Privacy Concerns,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology 9, no. 17 (May 18, 2016): 1–8.
  41. Patricia Kleary, Kristen Garlock, Denise Novak, Ethan Pullman, and Sanjeet Mann, “Text Mining 101: What You Should Know,” The Serials Librarian 72, no. 1–4 (May 2017): 156–59, https://doi.org/10.1080/0361526X.2017.1320876.
  42. Inga Haugen, Edward F. Lener, Virginia Pannabecker, and Philip Young, “Digging Deeper into Text and Data Mining,” https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/79483.
  43. Clifford B. Anderson and Hilary A. Craiglow, “Text Mining in Business Libraries,” Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship 22, no. 2 (April 2017): 149–65.
  44. Philip Young, Inga Haugen, Edward F. Lener, Virginia Pannabecker, and Collin Brittle, “Library Support for Text and Data Mining: A Report for the University Libraries at Virginia Tech,” Report, Virginia Tech, June 22, 2017, http://bit.ly/2FccOwu.
  45. Alexandre Ribas Semeler, Adilson Luiz Pinto, and Helen Beatriz Frota Rozados, “Data science in data Librarianship: Core competencies of a Data Librarian,” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science (November 2017): 1–10.
  46. Andrew Weiss, Big Data Shocks: An Introduction to Big Data for Librarians and Information Professionals(London: Rowman and Littlefield, 2018).
  47. Michael Zeoli, “Trends in Academic Library Acquisitions,” presentation at the Charlotte Initiative Symposium, held at the Charleston Conference, November 6–10, 2017.
  48. Stephanie J. Spratt, Gabrielle Wiersma, Rhonda Glazier, and Denise Pan, “Exploring the Evidence in Evidence-Based Acquisition,” The Serials Librarian 72, nos. 1-4 (2017): 183–89.
  49. David W. Lewis, “The 2.5% Commitment,” IUPUI Scholar Works, September 11, 2017, http://hdl.handle.net/1805/14063.
  50. David W. Lewis, Lori Goetsch, Diane Graves, and Mike Roy, “Funding Community Controlled Open Infrastructure for Scholarly Communication,” College and Research Libraries News 79, no. 3 (March 2018): 133–36.
  51. Lisa Macklin and Chris Palazzolo, “Open Access Collection Development Policy at Emory,” ASERL Webinar, June 6, 2016, http://bit.ly/2FkmN6p.
  52. Kristin Antelman, “Leveraging the Growth of Open Access in Library Collection Decision-Making,” http://bit.ly/2FOpICk.
  53. “Austrian Open Access Agreement with Publisher Wiley,” accessed April 8, 2018, http://bit.ly/2tdgfSg.
  54. See https://www.hathitrust.org/shared_print_program.
  55. “The Future of the Academic Library Print Collection: A Space for Engagement,” Arizona State University White Paper, http://bit.ly/2Fa50vx.
  56. Lisa M. Rose-Wiles and John P. Irwin, “An Old Horse Revised?: In-House Use of Print Books at Seton Hall University,” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 42, no. 3 (2016): 207–2014.
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Sanat tarihimizde önemli yeri olan Osman Hamdi Bey’in Sabancı Üniversitesi Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi Koleksiyonu’nda yer alan eserleriyle, sanatçının bunları yaparken kullandığı tekniklere dair bulgular “Görünenin Ötesinde Osman Hamdi Bey” sergisiyle sanatseverlere sunuluyor. İki yılda tamamlanan “Osman Hamdi Bey Tablolarının Bilimsel Analizleri ve Konservasyonu” projesinin bulgularına dayanan bu sergi, sanatçının boya uygulama tekniklerini, kullandığı malzemeleri ve eserlerin geçirdiği restorasyon çalışmalarını izleyicilere aktarmayı hedefliyor. Sergi boyunca konservasyon ve bilimsel analiz çalışmalarının aşamaları adım adım yansıtılıyor ve böylece Osman Hamdi Bey’in eserlerinde çıplak gözle görünenlerin ötesindeki ayrıntıların, onun sanatını değerlendirmede nasıl bir açılım sağlayabileceği konusunda ipuçları sunuluyor.

Osman Hamdi Bey’in eserleri için konservasyon ve bilimsel analiz alanında şimdiye kadar gerçekleştirilmiş en kapsamlı çalışma olan bu projede, sanatçının Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi resim koleksiyonları arasındaki altı tablosuna odaklanıldı. Projenin ilk aşamasında Osman Hamdi Bey’in çalışma tekniğinin ve tablolarının kondisyonlarının anlaşılması amacıyla X-ışını görüntüleme tekniği kullanılarak eserlerin filmleri çekildi. Bir sonraki adımda tablolardaki unsurların kimyasal analizleri gerçekleştirildi. Sanatçının kullandığı malzemelerin yapısını, rengini, boya katmanlarını ve dokusunu incelemek üzere eserlerden alınan mikro boya örnekleri, özelliklerinin korunması amacıyla epoksi içeren kapsüllere gömüldü. Boya örnekleri, enerji dağılımlı X-ışını spektroskopisi eklentili taramalı elektron mikroskobu (scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, SEM-EDS) tekniğiyle incelenerek içeriğindeki elementler tespit edildi. Raman spektroskopisi ile boyaların “parmak izi” grafikleri çıkarılarak, bunların hangi pigmentlerden oluştuğu bulundu. Son olarak altı tablonun tuvallerinin organik yapıları, kızılötesi spektroskopisi (Fourier transform infrared, FTIR) ile incelendi. Veriler, temel bileşenler analizi (principal component analysis, PCA) metoduyla sınıflandırıldı ve özellikleri belirlendi.

“Osman Hamdi Bey Tablolarının Bilimsel Analizleri ve Konservasyonu” araştırması sonucunda sanatçının sıklıkla kullandığı pigmentlerin türlerinin yanı sıra boya uygulama tekniğinde de gözle görülemeyen ayrıntılar ortaya çıkarıldı. Eserlerindeki keskin ve yumuşak fırça darbeleri belirlendi ve resme başlamadan önce tuval üzerinde yaptığı çalışmalarla ilgili bilgiler sağlandı. Osman Hamdi Bey’e dair ileride gerçekleştirilecek araştırmalar için temel oluşturacak olan bu projede, aynı zamanda eserlerin kondisyonları da tespit edilerek konservasyon çalışmaları yapıldı. Sanatçının malzeme kullanımında gösterdiği özene, yaşadığı dönem için pahalı bulunan materyalleri tercih etmesine, boya uygulamadan önce yaptığı ayrıntılı çalışmalara dair düşünceler bu projeyle birlikte bilimsel olarak doğrulandı. Eserlerde çıplak gözle görülemeyecek ayrıntıların keşfi, Osman Hamdi Bey’in Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi Koleksiyonu’nda bulunan eserlerinin sanat tarihi açısından yeniden değerlendirilmesi için de bir zemin oluşturdu.

X-ışını görüntüleme tekniği neden gereklidir?

X-ışını görüntüleme tekniği kullanılarak elde edilen filmler, tablo yüzeyinin altındaki yapı ve boya içeriği hakkında bilgi verir. X-ışınıyla çekilen filmler, resimlerin fiziksel kondisyonunu belirlemenin yanı sıra sanatçının uyguladığı tekniklerle ilgili ipuçları da verir. Bu filmler boya içeriğindeki metallerin dağılımını gösterir; böylece sanatçının eser üzerindeki fırça darbelerinin hareketlerinin de takip edilmesi sağlanır. Filimler aynı zamanda sanatçının eser üzerinde yaptığı değişiklikleri ya da tablolarda uygulanmış olası restorasyon işlemlerinin izlerini ve zaman içinde uğradığı dönüşümü gösterir.

Pigment analizi nedir?

Pigment analizi, sanatçının tekniği ve malzemeleriyle ilgili bilgiye erişilmesi ve eserlerin tarihlendirilmesi için gerekli metotları içerir. Analizin ilk aşamasında resimlerin farklı bölgelerinden alınan örnekler, dağılarak özelliklerini kaybetmesinler diye epoksi içeren kapsüllere gömülür. Enerji dağılımlı X-ışını spektroskopisi eklentili taramalı elektron mikroskobu (scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, SEM-EDS) ile analiz edilen bu örnekler, sanatçının kullandığı boya pigmentlerinin element içeriğini tayin eder. Raman spektroskopisi analizi ise SEM-EDS analizinden elde edilen sonuçlara referansla bu pigmentlerin moleküler ve yapısal özelliklerinin tanımlanmasını sağlar.

Tuval bezinin özellikleri nasıl belirlenir?

Bir sanatçının kullandığı tuval bezinin türünü belirlemek hem eserlerin tarihlendirilebilmesini sağlar hem de toz, kir birikintisi veya verniğin sararması gibi sebeplerden dolayı resimlerin uğradığı değişimin anlaşılabilmesi için ayrıntılı bilgiler verir. Tuval bezinin hammaddesi, keten ya da pamuğun bitki hücrelerinin temel yapı taşı olan ve selüloz olarak bilinen doğal polimerden oluşur. Selüloz, yapısında birbirine farklı şekillerde bağlanmış karbon, hidrojen ve oksijen atomlarını içerir ve kızılötesi spektreskopisi (Fourier-transform infrared, FTIR) yöntemiyle, bezin yapıldığı bitkinin türüne, yetiştiği yer ve mevsime dair ipuçlarına ulaşılabilir. FTIR sonuçları, çeşitli analizlerden elde edilen verilerin sadeleştirilmesine yönelik bir istatiksel yöntem olan temel bileşenler analizine (principal component analysis, PCA) tabi tutulur. PCA yöntemi, tuvalde kullanılan malzemenin kökeni, yapısı ve bağlantılı özelliklerinin bilgisini sağlar.

PROJE EKİBİ / PROJECT TEAM

Sabancı Üniversitesi Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi

Filiz Kuvvetli

Hüma Arslaner

Nurçin Kural Özgörüş

Sabancı Üniversitesi Nanoteknoloji Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Ali Gülgün

Dr. Öğretim Görevlisi Meltem Sezen

Dr. Öğretim Görevlisi Feray Bakan

Koç Üniversitesi Yüzey Teknolojileri Araştırma Merkezi

Dr. Gülsu Şimşek

Getty Konservasyon Enstitüsü

Dr. Lynn Lee

Sabancı Üniversitesi Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi’nde Osman Hamdi Bey Tablolarına Farklı Bir Bakış

http://www.sakipsabancimuzesi.org/tr/sayfa/sergiler/gorunenin-otesinde-osman-hamdi-bey

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