Posted by: bluesyemre | September 29, 2020

The Universal Digital Library

 For the first time in history, all the significant literary, artistic, and scientific works of mankind can be digitally preserved and made freely available, in every corner of the world, for our education, study, and appreciation and that of all our future generations.Up until now, the transmission of our cultural heritage has depended on limited numbers of copies in fragile media. The fires of Alexandria irrevocably severed our access to any of the works of the ancients. In a thousand years, only a few of the paper documents we have today will survive the ravages of deterioration, loss, and outright destruction. With no more than 10 million unique book and document editions before the year 1900, and perhaps 100 million since the beginning of recorded history, the task of preservation is much larger. With new digital technology, though, this task is within the reach of a single concerted effort for the public good, and this effort can be distributed to libraries, museums, and other groups in all countries.Existing archives of paper have many shortcomings. Many other works still in existence today are rare, and only accessible to a small population of scholars and collectors at specific geographic locations. A single wanton act of destruction can destroy an entire line of heritage. Furthermore, contrary to the popular beliefs, the libraries, museums, and publishers do not routinely maintain broadly comprehensive archives of the considered works of man. No one can afford to do this, unless the archive is digital.Digital technology can make the works of man permanently accessible to the billions of people all over the world. Andrew Carnegie and other great philanthropists in past centuries have recognized the great potential of public libraries to improve the quality of life and provide opportunity to the citizenry. A universal digital library, widely available through free access on the Internet, will improve the global society in ways beyond measurement. The Internet can house a Universal Library that is free to the people.
 The mission is to create a Universal Library which will foster creativity and free access to all human knowledge. As a first step in realizing this mission, it is proposed to create the Universal Library with a free-to-read, searchable collection of one million books, available to everyone over the Internet. Within 10 years, it is our expectation that the collection will grow to 10 Million books. The result will be a unique resource accessible to anyone in the world 24×7, without regard to nationality or socioeconomic background.One of the goals of the Universal Library is to provide support for full text indexing and searching based on OCR (optical character recognition) technologies where available. The availability of online search allows users to locate relevant information quickly and reliably thus enhancing student’s success in their research endeavors. This 24×7 resource would also provide an excellent test bed for language processing research in areas such as machine translation, summarization, intelligent indexing, and information retrieval.It is our expectation that the Universal Library will be mirrored at several locations worldwide so as to protect the integrity and availability of the data. Several models for sustainability are being explored. Usability studies would also be conducted to ensure that the materials are easy to locate, navigate, and use. Appropriate metadata for navigation and management would also be created.
 The primary long-term objective is to capture all books in digital format. It is believed that such a task is impossible and could take hundreds of years, and never be completed. Thus, a first step was to demonstrate the feasibility by undertaking to digitize 1 million books (less than 1% of all books in all languages ever published). This was achieved in the 2006 – 2007 timeframe. We continue to digitize books at 50 scanning centers all over the globe to achieve the long term objective. We believe such a project has the potential to change how education is conducted in much of the world.The first major project of Universal Library is the Million Book Digital Library project. Typical large high-school libraries house fewer than 30,000 volumes. Most libraries in the world have less than a million volumes. The total number of different titles indexed in OCLC’s WorldCat is about 48 million. One million books, therefore, is more than the holdings of most high-schools, and is equivalent to the libraries at many universities and represents a useful fraction of all available books.A secondary objective of this project will be to provide a test bed that will support other researchers who are working on improved scanning techniques, improved optical character recognition, and improved indexing. The corpus this project creates will be one to three orders of magnitude larger than any existing free resource.
 The principal benefit of the Universal Library will be to supplement the formal education system by making knowledge available to anyone who can read and has access. Libraries have played a vital role in the advancement of human society. Societal advance depends on young people having access to books via libraries and other means. We expect that making this unique web resource available free to everyone around the world will enhance the learning process.Libraries are unevenly distributed around the world and within each country. In the U.S., the NCES Survey noted that in 1996, 3,408 of 3,792 institutions of higher education had libraries holding 806.7 million volumes. The 112 largest university libraries in the United States and Canada each have at least 1.8 million books. They are members of the Association for Research Libraries. Massachusetts has about 25 million volumes; New York has about 31 million volumes, and California has about 40 million volumes in their ARL Libraries (Association for Research Libraries, 1999/2000). Other states, such as North and South Dakota , have no large libraries. A few large public libraries have several million volumes. However, most junior colleges, high schools, and public libraries have much smaller collections. Making this large knowledge repository can revolutionize research at all levels of education and give a much-needed boost at minimal cost to our national educational infrastructure. This impact will be further enhanced given the convenience of online access, and the benefit of full text searching at word and phrase levels.A secondary benefit of online search is to make locating the relevant information inside of books far more reliable and much easier. Student success in finding exactly what they seek will increase and increased success will enhance student willingness to perform research using this large resource. NCES reports that 84 percent of libraries around the country are open between 60 and 80 hours a week. This digital library would be open all the 168 hours the week on a 24x7x365 basis. More than one individual will be able to use the same book at the same time. Thus, popular works will not be checked out and thus unavailable to others.This project will produce an extensive and rich test bed for use in further textual language processing research. It is hoped that at least 10,000 books among the million will be available in more than one language, providing a unique resource for example based machine translation.Many believe that information is now doubling every two years. Machine summarization, intelligent indexing, and information mining are tools that will be needed for individuals to keep up in their discipline work, in their businesses, and in their personal interests. This large digitization project will enable extensive research in these areas.
 Carnegie Mellon UniversityDr. Raj Reddy, Founder and Director of the Universal Digital Library (UDL)Dr. Michael Shamos, Director of UDL, Intellectual PropertyDr. Jaime Carbonell, Director of UDL, Language TechnologiesDr. Gloriana St. Clair, Director of UDL, University Librarian, Content SelectionRam Konduru, Director of UDL, New Initiatives and OperationsDr. Erika Linke, CMUGabrielle V. Michalek, CMUEd Walter, CMULavanya Prahallad (Nilu), CMUVamshi Ambati, CMUPast MembersDr. Robert Thibadeau, Director of UDL, Privacy and SecurityEd Fredkin, Carnegie Mellon UniversityEric Burns, MicrosoftMadhavi GanapathirajuUS AdvisorsDr. Robert Kahn, CNRIProf. John Mccarthy, Stanford UniversityDr. Ching-chih Chen, Co-Principal Investigator, China-US Million Book ProjectDr. Peter Chen, Executive Director, China US Million Book ProjectDr. Daniel Greenstein, Executive Director of the Digital Library FederationDr. Brewster Kahle, President, Internet ArchiveDr. Victor Zue, Professor, LCS, MITDr. Michael Lesk, National Science FoundationDr. Stephen Griffin, National Science FoundationChinaDr. Pan Yunhe, President of Zhejiang UniversityDr. Gao Wen, Deputy President of the Graduate School, Chinese Academy of ScienceDr. Gao Wen, Deputy President of the Graduate School, Chinese Academy of ScienceDr. Yueting Zhuang, Assistant Dean of Computer Science Department of Zhejiang UniversityDr. Jihai Zhao, Associate librarian of Zhejaing UniversityChen Haiying, Secretary of CADAL Project & Director of Digital Library R&D Center, Zhejiang University LibrariesDr. Huang Tiejun, Institute for Digital Media of Peking University, Director of North Technical Center for China-US Million Book ProjectPast MembersMr. Guo Xinli, Vice General Director, Ministry of Education of ChinaMr. Chen Jianping, Vice Director, State Planning Commission of ChinaDr. Chi Huisheng, Vice President of Beijing UniversityDr. Hu Dongcheng, Vice President of Tsinghua UniversityDr. Xu Zhong, Vice President of Fudan UniversityDr. Zhang Yibin, Assistant to the President, Nanjing UniversityIndiaDr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam, Founding Sponsor. Former President of IndiaDr. N. Balakrishnan, Chairman, Division of Information Sciences, Indian Institute of ScienceDr. M D Tiwari, Director, Indian Institute of Information Technology, AllahabadMr. K.V. Ramanachary, Executive Officer of Tirumala Tirupati DevasthanamsMr. Nadendla Manohar, MLA, Chairman, A.P Assembly Library CommitteeMr. Subramanyam Bhuman, TTD UDLDr. C V Jawahar, IIIT Hyderabad UDLCDAC, NoidaDr. A. B. Saha, CDAC, CalcuttaKiran Kumar Vemuru, Director Planning, UDL IndiaMr. Sridharan, Secretary, Arulmigu Kalasalingam College Of EngineeringDr. Thangaraj, Principal, Arulmigu Kalasalingam College Of EngineeringDr. Vaidhyasubramanian, Dean, Shanmugha Arts, Science, Technology & Research AcademyAsma Mannan,E.Veera Raghavendra ,Rakesh Devineni,Jaya Krishna, MSIT-IIIT, HyderabadPast MembersProf. M G K Menon, Chairman, Council of Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad and Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay (Mumbai)Dr. V S Arunachalam, Chairman CESTEP, Bangalore, Distinguished Service Professor, CMUMr. Yashwant Bhave, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Communication and Information TechnologyDr. Chaturvedi, Director, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Govt. of IndiaDr. Ashok Kolaskar, Vice Chancellor, Pune UniversityDr. P. Krishniah, Executive Officer of Tirumala Tirupati DevasthanamsMr. Ajeya Kallam, Executive Officer of Tirumala Tirupati DevasthanamsMr. A.P.V.N Sharma, Executive Officer of Tirumala Tirupati DevasthanamsMr. Ajay Sawhney, Special Secretary for IT, Government of Andhra PradeshDr. IV Subbarao, Secretary Education, Government of Andhra PradeshDr. Om Vikas, Senior Director, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Govt. of IndiaMr. Surendra Bagde, Joint CEO, Mumbai Industrial Development CorporationEgyptDr. Ismail Serageldin, Director, Bibliotheca AlexandrinaDr. Magdy Nagi, Head of ICT Sector, Bibliotheca AlexandrinaDr. Noha Adly, ICT and ISIS Director, Bibliotheca Alexandrina
 ChinaBeijing UniversityChinese Academy of ScienceFudan UniversityMinistry of Education of ChinaNanjing UniversityState Planning Commission of ChinaTsinghua UniversityZhejiang UniversityEgyptBibliotheca AlexandrinaIndiaArulmigu Kalasalingam College Of EngineeringGoa UniversityIndian Institute of Information Technology – AllahabadIndian Institute of ScienceInternational Institute of Information Technology – HyderabadShanmugha Arts,Science,Technology & Research AcademyTirumala Tirupati DevasthanamsMaharashtra Industrial Development CorporationUniversity of Pune

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